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The original Main Gallery (designed by the British architect Josiah Conder) was severely damaged in the Great Kanto Earthquake of 1923. In contrast to western style of the original structure, the design of the present Honkan by Watanabe Jin is the more eastern "Emperor's Crown Style." Construction began in 1932, and the building was opened in 1938.
24 exhibition rooms on two floors provide a thorough introduction into Japanese art: "Highlights of Japanese Art" on the second floor introduces the development of Japanese art from Jomon through to the Edo period in a chronological manner, and genre galleries presenting specific rooms displaying ceramics, swords, lacquerwares, sculptures, modern decorative arts as well as the material culture of Ainu and Ryukyu are located on the first floor.

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Finding Cherry Blossom in the Japanese Gallery (Honkan)

 March 13, 2018 (Tue) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

To coincide with the Springtime Opening of the Museum Garden (Tuesday, March 13- Sunday, May 20, 2018), many artworks featuring cherry blossoms are on display in the Japanese Gallery. Come and enjoy the various expressions of cherry blossom depicted in ancient and modern masterpieces.

2nd floor "Highlights of Japanese Art"

The Dawn of Japanese Art: Jomon, Yayoi and Kofun periods
Room 1  January 2, 2018 (Tue) - July 16, 2018 (Mon)

Current exhibit includes:
Haniwa (Terracotta tomb figurine), Dancing person, Excavated from Nohara Tumulus, Kumagaya-shi, Saitama, Kofun period, 6th century
Deep Bowl, Excavated from Miyanomae, Ina-shi, Nagano, Jomon period, 3000–2000 BC (Gift of Mr. Tokugawa Yorisada)
Dotaku (Bell-shaped bronze), Kinki-region style, Excavated from Mukaiyama, Ibaraki, Hidaka-cho, Wakayama, Yayoi period, 1st–3rd century
Dogu (Clay figurine), Excavated at Kamikurokoma, Misaka-cho, Fuefuki-shi, Yamanashi, Jomon period, 3000–2000 BC (Gift of Mr. Miyamoto Naokichi)

The Rise of Buddhism: Asuka–Nara period
Room 1  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

In the mid-6th century, Buddhism was officially introduced into Japan from the kingdom of Baekje on the southeastern coast of the Korean peninsula. Japanese culture made a remarkable progress with the adoption of Buddhism. This gallery features early Buddhist statues, sutras, reliquaries, and ritual implements from the Asuka and Nara periods.

Current exhibit includes:
Standing Kannon Bosatsu (Avalokitesvara), Excavated at Mount Nachi, Nachikatsu'ura-cho, Higashimuro-gun, Wakayama, Asuka period, 7th century (Gift of Mr. Kitamata Tomeshiro and two others)
Bussetsu Miroku jobutsu kyo Sutra, Nara period, dated 730
Bussetsu kaishosai kyo Sutra, Nara period, dated 740 (Gift of Mr. Sahoyama Shin'en)
Various Ancient Buddhist Sutras, Nara-Kamakura period, 8th?13th century (Gift of Mr. Matsunaga Yasuzaemon)

Room 2  January 30, 2018 (Tue) - March 11, 2018 (Sun)

The Kengu kyo is a sutra of allegories about the wise and the foolish, which was translated into Chinese by Huijie of the Northern Wei dynasty (386–535) and others. The scroll on exhibit contains transcriptions – presumably by Emperor Shomu (r. 724–749), though without conclusive evidence – of volumes from four different chapters of the sutra. For its association with Emperor Shomu and the magnificent air it possesses, this scroll is known as “Ojomu,” which can be interpreted as “Grand Emperor Shomu,” or “transcription by Emperor Shomu in large characters.”

Buddhist Art: Heian–Muromachi period
Room 3  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

Buddhist art is one of the major genres that define Japanese art. Many masterworks date from the late Heian period, a time characterized as classical in Japanese art history. After the Kamakura period, Buddhist art further developed in its materials, methods, and styles as Zen schools and other new Buddhist schools emerged, together with the influence from the Chinese arts. This exhibit features artworks from the Heian to Kamakura periods, when Buddhist art most flourished, adding siginificant objects from the Nanbokucho and periods.

Current exhibit includes:
Standing Bishamonten (Vaisravana), By Keisan, Kamakura period, dated 1271
Mandalas of the Two Realms, Kamakura period, 14th century (Important Art Object, Private collection)
Priest Kobo Daishi (Kukai),
Muromachi period, 15th century (Private collection)
The Deity Hachiman in the Form of a Priest, Kamakura period, 14th century (Lent by the OKURA MUSEUM OF ART, Tokyo)
Iconography of Kujaku Myo'o (Mahamayuri), Heian period, 12th century
Illustrated Biography of Priest Shinran, Vol. 4, Dated 1344 (Important Cultural Property, Lent by Shoganji, Chiba)
Record of "Kiuho" Ceremony for Bringing Rain, By Shoken, Heian period, dated 1191 (Important Cultural Property)
Bussetsu tennyo jobutsu kyo Sutra, Heian period, 12th century

Courtly Art: Heian–Muromachi period Item List
Room 3  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

The courtiers were strongly involved in the arts through the Heian and Muromachi periods, their aesthetic tastes playing a great role in Japanese art history. Literature works such as waka poems and other calligraphy written by courtiers, and e-maki narrative picture scrolls displayed in this room with decorative art objects.

Current exhibit includes:
Illustrated Scroll of Love Story of Courtier Sagoromo, Edo period, 17th century
Segment of Poems from The Love Story of Courtier Sagoromo, Himejigire segment, Attributed to Fujiwara no Tameie, Kamakura period, 13th century
Segment of Man'yo shu Poetry Anthology, Chapter 4Togano'ogire segment, By Minamoto no Kaneyuki, Heian period, 11th century (Important Art Object, Private collection)
Segment of Man'yo shu Poetry Anthology, Vol. 12, Known as "Amagasakigire", Attributed to Minamoto no Toshiyori, Heian Period, 12th century (Important Art Object, Private collection)
Mirror with Image of Zao Gongen in Hairline Engraving, Auspicious flower and phoenix pair design, Excavated at Kinpusen range of ridges, Tenkawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara, Heian period, 12th century

Zen and Ink Painting: Kamakura–Muromachi period Item List
Room 3  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

This gallery features works by famous artists of the landscape-painting genre, along with famous works of bokuseki (calligraphy by Zen priests).

Current exhibit includes:
Landscape of the Four Seasons, By Yogetsu, Muromachi period, 15th century (Important Cultural Property)

The Art of Tea Ceremony
Room 4  January 2, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

This gallery highlights the way of tea through its various art works such as paintings and calligraphy, vases, vessels for kaiseki meals, kettles, tea caddies, and tea bowls.

Current exhibit includes:
Water Jar, Peony design in overglaze enamel, Studio of Ninsei, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Empress Dowager Shoken)
Tea Bowl, Known as "Kanoko madara," By Ichinyu IV; Raku ware, Kuroraku type, Edo period, 17th century (Gift of Mr. Hirota Matsushige)
Vase with Phoenix Handles, Celadon glaze, Longquan ware, China, Southern Song-Yuan dynasty, 13th century (Gift of Mr. Matsunaga Yasuzaemon)

Attire of the Military Elite: Heian–Edo period
Room 5 & 6  February 14, 2018 (Wed) - May 6, 2018 (Sun)

Beginning with the sword which is the most important possession of a samurai, this gallery focuses on arms and armor, saddlery, attire of the warriors as well as their portraits and hand-writings.

Current exhibit includes:
Gusoku Type Armor, Two-piece cuirass with black lacing, Formerly used by Sakakibara Yasumasa, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property)
Tachi Sword, By Sukezane, Kamakura period, 13th century (National Treasure, Lent by Toshogu, Tochigi)
Uchigatana Style Sword Mounting (For tachi sword by Sukezane), With black-lacquered scabbard, Azuchi-Momoyama - Edo period, 17th century (National Treasure, Lent by Toshogu, Tochigi)
Undergarment for Armor, Bouquet, auspicious motifs and Horai (Penglai, Land of Immortals) design on white twill ground, Edo period, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Aoki Kinzo)
Kamishimo (Warriors' Costume), Pine-leaf design with three-leaves hollyhock crests on yellow-green ramie, Purportedly owned by Tsunayoshi, the fifth-generation, Tokugawa shogun, Edo period, 19th century

Folding Screens and Sliding Door Paintings: Azuchi-Momoyama?Edo period
Room 7  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

This gallery is dedicated to the genre of shohei-ga, which includes mural paintings, fusuma paintings and byobu paintings. The room is especially designed for an effective display of grand-scale paintings.

Current exhibit includes:
Old Pines at SeashoreFormerly interior paintings of Kiun'in Temple, By Maruyama Okyo, Edo period, dated 1787
Literary Gathering at the Orchid Pavilion, By Matsumura Keibun, Edo period, 19th century

The Arts of Daily Life: Azuchi-Momoyama–Edo period
Room 8  January 30, 2018 (Tue) - April 15, 2018 (Sun)

The maturing of Japanese culture supported by the military and commoner classes continued throughout the Azuchi-Momoyama and Edo periods. This gallery introduces the craft of interior furnishings and daily utensils that adorned the life of the people during these periods.

Current exhibit includes:
Picnic Set, Hollyhock crest design in maki-e lacquer, Edo period, 19th century,
Yogi (Kimono-shaped quilt), Snowflake design on white twill weave ground, Edo period, 18th century
Junihitoe (Formal garment of high-ranking court lady), For naishi no suke rank, Edo period, 19th century
Sokutai (Formal garment for nobleman), Edo period, 19th century
Standing Daruma (Bodhidharma), By Murata Seimin, Edo period, 19th century
Large Dish, Flower and bird design in overglaze enamel, Imari ware,
Edo period, 17th century (Lent by the OKURA MUSEUM OF ART, Tokyo)
Tiered Box with Lid, Camellia, pine, bamboo, and plum design in overglaze enamel and openwork, Kyoto ware,
Edo period, 18th century
Tea Bowl, Plum blossom design in overglaze enamel,
By Nonomura Ninsei, Edo period, 17th century (Gift of Mr. Hirota Matsushige)

Developments in Painting and Calligraphy: Azuchi-Momoyama - Edo period
Room 8  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

This gallery introduces the dynamic and multi-faceted world of paintings and calligraphy from the Azuchi-Momoyama to the Edo period.

Current exhibit includes:
Portrait of Sato Issai (Aged 50), By Watanabe Kazan, Edo period, dated 1821 (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Mr. Kawada Yasushi)
Priests' Answers to Examination Questions, By Hayashi Doshun and others, Edo period, dated 1614 (Important Cultural Property, Lent by Konchi-in, Kyoto)

Noh and Kabuki: The Forms of Gods and Demons in Noh
Room 9  February 20, 2018 (Tue) - April 22, 2018 (Sun)

Noh plays were originally performed as offerings to the gods. Characters that appear in these plays include a variety of gods and demons, the creation of which was stimulated by a fear of nature and unearthly "spirits." The colors, patterns, and shapes of the costumes used for these roles depend on the type of god or demon being portrayed. For this exhibition, we have recreated the appearances of three different types of gods inspired by the latter half of the Noh play Arashiyama. Visitors are also encouraged to view a related exhibition, The Masks of Japan: Gods and Demons in Noh and Kyogen, in Room 14 on the first floor of this building.

Current exhibit includes:
Atsuita (Noh costume), Design of clouds, screens with arrows, and fish scales on red and green ground, Edo period, 19th century
Kariginu (Noh costume), Edo period, 18th century, (Lent by the Agency for Cultural Affairs)

Ukiyo-e and Fashion in the Edo Period: Ukiyo-e
Room 10  January 30, 2018 (Tue) - February 25, 2018 (Sun)

In the early Edo period (1603–1868), ukiyo-e, which depicted common people, consisted only of paintings. A method of woodblock printing was later devised and mass production of ukiyo-e became possible. Eventually, a method of producing multicolored nishiki-e prints was established following the development of carving and printing techniques.
This exhibition comprises mainly of woodblock prints with a wintry feel featuring snow and plum blossoms. Also included in the lineup are hand-painted works depicting scenes befitting this season, such as genre scenes of the four seasons and a beauty keeping herself warm in the kotatsu foot warmer.

Current exhibit includes:
Allusion to the Noh Play Hachinoki (Potted Trees), By Suzuki Harunobu, Edo period, 18th century
The Actors Ichikawa Komazo II and Yamashita Kinsaku II in the Noh Play
Hachinoki (Potted Trees), By Ippitsusai Buncho, Edo period, 18th century (Important Art Object)
Famous Places of the Eastern Capital: The Plum Garden at Kameido Shrine,
By Utagawa Hiroshige, Edo period, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Takahashi Yasushi)
Mountains and Rivers of the Kiso Highway,
By Utagawa Hiroshige, Edo period, dated 1857

Ukiyo-e and Fashion in the Edo Period: Fashion
Room 10  February 20, 2018 (Tue) - April 22, 2018 (Sun)

Introduces the fashion of the Edo period townspeople. Enjoy comparing with the ukiyo-e works exhibited in the same room.

Current exhibit includes:
Kosode (Garment with small wrist openings), Design of stripes, windows, and plum branches on a light-yellow chirimen crepe ground, Formely owned by Noguchi Hikobei, Edo period, 18th century
Kosode (Garment with small wrist openings), Design of young pines, cherries, and curtains on a white figured-satin ground, Edo period, 18th century
Furisode (Garment with long sleeves), Design of weeping cherries, chrysanthemums, and tanzaku poem cards on a parti-colored chirimen crepe ground, Edo period, 18th century
Inro (Medicine case), Design of the monk Saigyo viewing Mount Fuji in maki-e lacquer and mother-of-pearl inlay, Meiji era, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Quincy A. Shaw)

2nd floor

Netsuke: The Prince Takamado Collection
The Prince Takamado Collection Room  January 30, 2018 (Tue) - April 22, 2018 (Sun)

Strange Things Do Happen!, By Tachihara Kangyoku, 1992
Melon, Kinuyo Hariya, 1996
Ground Cherry, Seiho Azuma, 1994
Squirrel, Tadamine Nakagawa, 1989
Hatching Snake, Susan Wraight, 1993

Room T2  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - April 22, 2018 (Sun)

This exhibition sheds light on Okuda Eisen (1753–1811), a renowned potter of Kyoto ware who was active in the late Edo period, and his pupils. In an attempt to meet the demands of the time, during which the custom of drinking leaf tea was becoming popular and Chinese art and culture was highly admired, Eisen, for the first time in Japan, fired porcelain in Kyoto. Eisen’s pupils – Aoki Mokubei, Kinkodo Kisuke, and Nin’nami Dohachi – contributed to the founding and expansion of local kilns beyond Kyoto, in various feudal domains where they were invited to provide guidance.
Visitors are invited to view ceramic works by these prominent, Kyoto-based potters as well as those created at the associated local kilns.

1st floor

Japanese Sculpture
Room 11  February 6, 2018 (Tue) - April 15, 2018 (Sun)

the Heian and Kamakura periods, the zenith of Japanese sculpture.

Current exhibit includes:
Standing Juichimen Kannon Bosatsu (Ekadasamukha), Formerly preserved at Tonomine, Nara, Tang dynasty, 7th century (Important Cultural Propert)
Standing Fudo Myo'o (Acalanatha), Heian period, 11th century (Gift of Mr. Okano Tetsusaku)
Standing Kichijo Ten (Mahasri), Formerly owned by Omiya Jinja, Kameoka-shi, Kyoto, Heian period, 10th century

Room 12  January 2, 2018 (Tue) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

Features maki-e works from Heian to Edo period. The exhibit shows the history and beauty of maki-e, a unique lacquerwork method that developed in Japan.

Current exhibition includes:
Tebako (Cosmetic box), Scattered fan design in maki-e lacquer, Kamakura-Nanbokucho period, 14th century (Important Cultural Property, Lent by the OKURA MUSEUM OF ART, Tokyo)
Writing Box, Reed and boat design in maki-e lacquer, Attributed to Hon'ami Koetsu, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property)
Box for Priest's Vestment, Mount Penglai (Horai) design in maki-e lacquer, Horyuji Treasures Collection, Heian period, 12th century (Important Cultural Property)
Writing Box, Scene illustrating a poem known as "Shio no yama" in maki-e lacquer, Muromachi period, 15th century (Important Cultural Property)
Red-lacquered Oshiki (plate) and Keisu (cup stand), Muromachi period, dated 1457 (Important Cultural Property, Lent by the Masumida Shrine, Aichi)
Red-lacquered Lobed Tray, Muromachi period, dated 1455 (Important Cultural Property, Lent by the Tokiwayama Bunko Foundation, Tokyo)
Red-lacquered Tray with Three Legs, Nanbokucho period, dated 1379 (Important Cultural Property, Lent by Hotsumisakiji, Kochi)

Room 13  January 2, 2018 (Tue) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

This exhibition provides a historical overview of Japanese metalwork from the Heian (794–1192) to the Edo (1603–1868) period. Objects are displayed by category, such as Buddhist ritual implements, mirrors, tea kettles, objects with designs in cloisonné, decorative fittings, and okimono ornaments. Visitors are invited to view the beauty of metals such as gold, silver, copper, and iron, as well as the shapes they were crafted into, and the designs they were freely embellished with.

Current exhibit includes:
Hanging Lantern, Plum and bamboo design in openwork, Excavated at Sen'yoji temple site, Chibadera-machi, Chuo-ku, Chiba-shi, Muromachi period, dated 1550 (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Mr. Hatano Yujiro)
Kei Gong, Lotus pond design, Excavated at Kinpusen, Tenkawa-mura, Yoshino-gun, Nara, Heian period, 12th century (Important Cultural Property)
Ichimenki (Set of vessels for ritual offerings), Kamakura period, 13th century (Important Cultural Property, Lent by Kokenji, Kagawa)

Japanese Swords
Room 13  January 10, 2018 (Wed) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

Exhibits selected swords and sword-fittings from the Heian to Edo periods, including the Tachi Sword, Known as “Okanehira”, By Kanehira.

Current exhibit includes:
Tachi Sword, Known as “Okanehira”, By Kanehira, Heian period, 12th century (National Treasure)
Tachi Sword, Known as "Daihannya Nagamitsu", By Nagamitsu, Kamakura period, 13th century (National Treasure)

Room 13  November 28, 2017 (Tue) - February 25, 2018 (Sun)

From Japan's first glazed ceramics of the Nara period to the various wares of the late Edo period, the exhibits will introduce the history of Japanese ceramics through masterworks according to time period and production sites.

Current exhibit includes:
Large-mouthed Jar, Yellow glaze with peony arabesque design, Seto ware, Kamakura period, 14th century (Important Cultural Property)
Tea Leaf Jar, Moon and plum design in overglaze enamel,
Studio of Ninsei, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property)
Square Dish, Design of Chinese figure watching seagulls in underglaze iron,
By Ogata Korin and Shinsei , Edo period, 18th century (Important Cultural Property)
Large Bowl, Pine and plum tree design in underglaze blue,
Imari ware, Edo period, 17th century (Private collectio)
Sake Ewer, Peony and lion design in overglaze enamel,
Imari ware, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property, Lent by the Agency for Cultural Affairs)
Deep Bowl, Flower and bird design in overglaze enamel,
Imari ware, Kakiemon type, Edo period, 17th century (Important Cultural Property)

Room 14  December 5, 2017 (Tue) - February 25, 2018 (Sun)

Swords have been appreciated in Japan from 600 years ago. This thematic exhibition aims to experience the aspects of sword appreciation that has been accumulated over time, by looking at actual blades.

Records of History
Room 15  January 30, 2018 (Tue) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

Tokyo National Museum includes a large collection of historical objects and documents. This collection began with objects previously owned by the Edo shogunate government. From the museum's establishment in 1872 (Meiji 5) onward, the collection grew through the holding of exhibitions as well as surveys of cultural properties.

Current exhibit includes:
Map of Kyushu (Small-sized map), By Ino Tadataka, Edo period, 19th century (Important Cultural Property)
Map of Tokaido Highway, Scroll 1Shinagawa, Nitta Shrine of Ikegami, Kawasakidaishigawara, Kanagawa, Hodogaya, Totsuka, Fujisawa,
Compiled by the Office of TransportationFormerly preserved at Asakusa Bunko Library, Edo period,1806 (Important Cultural Property)
Ritual Dance at Kasuga Shrine, Jinshin Survey Photographs,
By Yokoyama Matsusaburo, Dated 1872 (Important Cultural Property)

Ainu and Ryukyu: Decorative Designs of the Ainu People
Room 16  November 28, 2017 (Tue) - February 25, 2018 (Sun)

This display features elaborate designs the Ainu people used to decorate their garments and daily utensils. Garment designs were rendered from pieces of cotton cloth and dyed embroidery. Wooden objects such as trays, makiri knife mountings, and ritual quivers were decorated with minutely carved patterns. Women decorated using cloth and needles, and men engraved designs with makiri knives. The Ainu designs featured include whorl patterns called morew and brace-like patterns known as ayus.
The Ainu people held rituals and dances wearing garments and holding objects decorated with these designs.

Current exhibit includes:
Hood, Hokkaido Ainu, 19th century (Transferred from the Bureau for the Vienna World Exposition)
Ethnic group unknown, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Katayama Naoto)
Hokkaido Ainu, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Tokugawa Yorisada)
Pendent Ornament in Shape of Flounder,
Hokkaido Ainu, 19th century (Gift of Mr. Tokugawa Yorisada)
Jinbaori (Coat worn over armor), Hokkaido Ainu, 19th century

Conservation and Restoration
Room 17  April 15, 2014 (Tue) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

>> detailed information
The preservation and conservation of cultural properties are essential aspects of our Museum's mission. From this point of view, this room features object research and examination, environmental maintenance of storage and exhibition rooms, and conservation procedures applied in accordance to materials and conditions of the objects.


Modern Art
Room 18  February 14, 2018 (Wed) - March 18, 2018 (Sun)

This gallery features paintings and sculptures from the Meiji to Taisho period. Since it first opened in 1872 as the exposition venue of the Ministry of Education, Tokyo National Museum has collected important artworks that signify the development of modern Japanese art. The exhibit consists of selected works from the collection.

Current exhibit includes:
Eight Famous Places of Kyoto, By Maeda Seison, Dated 1916
Prince Yamato Takeru no Mikoto,
By Aoki Shigeru, Dated 1906
By Hirakushi Denchu, Dated 1917
By Suzuki Chokichi, Dated 1892 (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Japan Delegate Office for World's Columbian Exposition, Chicago)
Mount Fuji, Plaque in cloisonné,
By Attributed to Namikawa Sousuke, Dated 1893 (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Japan Delegate Office for World's Columbian Exposition)
Large Vase, Plum tree design in underglaze iron brown under yellow glaze,
By Miyagawa Kozan I, Dated 1892 (Important Cultural Property, Gift of Japan Delegate Office for World's Columbian Exposition)

Education Center: Education Space
Room 19  April 15, 2014 (Tue) - April 8, 2018 (Sun)

Designing at TNM
Exploring The TNM Collection
Making at TNM
Searching for National Treasures at TNM
Touching TNM

Room 19  April 18, 2017 (Tue) - March 31, 2018 (Sat)

This year’s reproduction project features a garment from Okinawa, made by using the island’s traditional bingata dyeing technique. With a mass of colorful peony flowers, buds, and leaves, all dyed on a white background, the original work is entitled: Bingata Garment with Peony Design on White Cotton. The intricate design structure and vivid colors gave our team ample opportunity to explore this superb dyeing technique that blossomed in the 19th-century Ryukyu Kingdom in Okinawa. What kind of dyeing techniques allow such minutely-detailed flower petals and leaf shapes, and what kind of culture nurtured the colorful style of bingata? This display explores answers to these questions through a combination of research, fieldwork, and hands-on reproduction.